Sunday, October 16, 2011

Solar Water Distillers

Water is the most precious resource in the desert, and the desert makes up most of Mexico. There are no wells in communities so rainwater is collected in deposits. This rainwater is not safe to drink, and so families need to boil the water using wood fires. A solar water distiller can provide safe drinking water, so there is no longer a need to boil water. The distiller is basically a box in which water is evaporated and collected. The distiller is expected to last many years. Distillers can provide better quality water while reducing the work involved and the health and environmental impacts of burning wood.

Battery-less Flashlights

Flashlights are used sparingly in Mexico because batteries are so expensive. One alternative is a durable, long-lasting flashlight that does not use batteries. This kind of flashlight gets power just by shaking it (the LED bulb lasts a long time and they are sealed and waterproof).

Solar "Hot Pot" Ovens

Solar ovens are really cool and cheap. Solar ovens are a great alternative to cooking over traditional wood fires. The hot pot can be left outside during daylight hours to cook many different types of food. It saves people energy, since they don't need to get wood. Other benefits are that it doesn’t have as much of an environmental impact, and it reduces the exposure of women and children to smoke.

Why we use Solar Energy ?

Solar energy is a great alternative source of power. Solar panels may be expensive but in the long run they are better for two reasons. One, they lower the electricity and heating bills. Two, they are better for people and the environment because they don’t pollute the air like the burning of fossil fuels.Let’s look at this a different way to see why you should use solar energy. Even though using solar energy can be more expensive than burning fossil fuels, it is clean and sunlight is easily available. Also, you may not realize it but lots of everyday things use solar energy. Things like lights in the yard, calculators, and even cars. The Nuna 3 is a race car made by the Dutch Nuna team. It is completely powered by solar energy.

What is Solar Energy ?

During photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is collected through panels, called solar panels. Solar panels are covered with large modules which are covered with lots of little PV cells, or photovoltaic cells. The PV cells collect the light from the sun. Once the light is inside a PV cell. A photon is a particle of solar energy. Within the semiconductor, energy of the photons shifts to the electrons. This energizes the electrons. Then the electrons break out of the semiconductor to get to the silicone atoms. Then they flow into the electric current. Usually a solar cell is made of a glass protective layer, an anti-reflective coat, and electric contacts. We use PV cell systems every day. Common tools like watches and calculators are powered with PV systems. Look at the top of a calculator. Do you see the little squares at the top? Those are lots of little PV cells. Usually PV cells don’t generate much electricity. PV cells generate about ½ a volt per square decimeter. A solar panel making fifty watts of electricity is about four decimeters by ten decimeters. What if you don’t know how much energy your appliance or machine needs? Well, the answer is easy.

Southampton airport gets solar-powered runway lights


Solar-powered lighting has been installed alongside Southampton Airport's runway.

Nick-named "Wig Wags" the flashing lights cost £25,000 in total and are used at junctions between the runway and taxiways.

Southampton is the first UK airport to install the lights which are also used by the US Air Force in Afghanistan.

An airport spokesperson said: "We've been able to minimise the environmental footprint and maintenance costs."

Solar energy

The five units, supplied by Systems Interface Ltd in Surrey, use solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity and ensure the lights operate 24 hours a day.

Their batteries can store enough energy to permanently operate the lights for up to 120 days without any solar charging.

The lights have also been installed in areas of the airport where there is no access to power supplies, saving the £170,000 cost of laying cables.

They were trialled during last winter as replacements for the conventional lighting systems.
Mark Gibb, director of airside operations admitted: "It's a drop in the ocean, but nonetheless it is part of our overall commitment to, wherever possible, identify possibilities to reduce carbon emissions.

"This is one small but important example of using new, innovative technology."

The airport has a target of cutting electricity use by 2.5% throughout 2010.

Mr Gibb added the airport would look at replacing actual runway lights with solar powered models when they come for up for renewal.

Solar Power

Solar power is produced by collecting sunlight and converting it into electricity. This is done by using solar panels, which are large flat panels made up of many individual solar cells. It is most often used in remote locations, although it is becoming more popular in urban areas as well. This page contains articles that explore advances in solar energy technology.In a market-friendly scenario, Nano solar claims to be able to produce electricity at 5-6 cents/kilowatt hour almost as cheap as power from coal and at about one-third the cost of other solar power. Nano solar claims: Nano solar claims mass production of solar power will now become feasible with their differently manufactured solar panels. Conventional silicon-made solar panels have a stiff competitor from CIGS semiconductor printed solar panels - composed of copper, gallium, indium and selenium - which perform as good as conventional solar panels in lab conditions. An inexpensive printing process makes it ideal for mass production by an automated facility with robots and other hi-fi equipment.

Other Interesting Solar Energy Facts:

1.In 1447, Leonardo Da Vince predicted a future solar industrialization 2.In just one hour, every day, more Solar Energy strikes the surface of the Earth than could be used by the entire population in a full year 3.In 1990, a completely solar powered aircraft (no fuel use at all) flew more than 3000 miles across the USA 4.Fierce weather is a side-effect of global warming, and in in 1998, $130 billion dollars in damages due to weather were recorded around the world (more than the combined totals from 1980 - 1990) 5.Roughly 2 Billion people (nearly 1/3rd) of the world’s population is without electricity 6.The USA makes up 5% of the world’s population, but uses more than 26% of the world’s energy 7.In energy consumption from a single source, ovens are number one, followed by microwaves and air conditioners 8.Third world countries with abundant sunlight and no electric infrastructure are the fastest-growing market for solar energy - in developed countries, industry and utilities are the lartgest consumers 9.Shell Oil, a leading petroleum company, predicts that 50%, or more, of the world’s energy will come from renewable energy sources (including solar) by the year 2040

Solar Energy Facts About Solar Systems:

1.A typical solar electric (PV) system includes: solar panels, a dc-ac inverter, a battery, a charge controller (if batteries are used) and the wiring and mounting frame 2.A kilowatt PV System can be installed in 1-2 days, with a typical cost of around $10,000 (not accounting for any federal, state and local incentives/credits) 3.A typical 1kW PV System will consist of about 10-12 solar panels (depending on the size (wattage) of the solar panels) which are installed facing south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere 4.A typical a 1kW PV System requires about 100 sq ft of roof/ground/pole space for installation 5. In a sunny climate (5.5 hours of sun/day) a 1kW PV System will produce around 1600 kWh of electricity per year, whereas, the same system in a cloudier climate (2.5 hours of sun/day) will produce about 750 kWh per year 6.On the Eco-Friendly side, a 1kW PV System will prevent around 170 lbs of coal from being burned every year, 300 lbs of CO2 from being released into the atmosphere and save 105 gallons of precious water from being consumed 7.A typical Solar Energy System comes with a 5-year warranty, however, the solar panels will generally have a 20-year warranty 8.With a proper battery backup, a Solar Energy System can produce 100% of a home or business’ energy needs (including nighttime and cloudy hours) 9.Solar Energy can easily be stored in batteries, reflected, insulated absorbed, transmitted and used to power your home/office appliances

Solar Energy Facts About Usage:

1.Solar Energy is measured in kilowatt-hours - 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts 2.The abbreviation for kilowatt-hour is kWh 3.1 kWh is the amount of electricity used to burn a 100 watt incandescent light bulb for 10 hours 4. In 1999, the US DOE (Department of Energy), reported that the average American household used 866 kilowatt-hours/month (an average cost of $70.68) .5 On average, 30% of energy consumption is used for hot water heating

General Solar Energy Facts:

1.Solar Energy is far more environmentally friendly than traditional energy forms 2.Solar Energy is available in several forms, for several uses, including electricity, hot water heating and radiant/space heating 3.Solar Energy is often found in our day to day lives, including heating swimming pools, power for cars, running attic fans and lighting (both indoors and outdoors) and Solar Energy even powers millions of calculators around the world every day 4.Solar Energy can even be used for cooking 5.Solar Energy is becoming dramatically more popular than ever before - Currently, the world-wide demand for solar energy products can not be met by the supply

World energy consumption

nergy markets have combined crisis recovery and strong industry dynamism. Energy consumption in the G20 soared by more than 5% in 2010, after the slight decrease of 2009. This strong increase is the result of two converging trends. On the one-hand, industrialized countries, which experienced sharp decreases in energy demand in 2009, recovered firmly in 2010, almost coming back to historical trends. Oil, gas, coal, and electricity markets followed the same trend. On the other hand, China and India, which showed no signs of slowing down in 2009, continued their intense demand for all forms of energy. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years (-1.1%) or 130 Mtoe (Megaton oil equivalent), as a result of the financial and economic crisis (GDP drop by 0.6% in 2009).[7] This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends. Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and CIS, consumptions shrank by 4.5%, 5% and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (up from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total.

Solar energy can pay off in about 10 years

Max Buzard lives what he sells and installs through Royer Technical Services, also in Hampton. Both are solar power enthusiasts, living in houses that make the energy they use. Instead of just paying electric bills, they can get checks back from clean-energy brokers and the power company. "Photovoltaic solar panels actually start paying for themselves right after installation," says Buzard. He estimates 10 solar panels in 235-watt sizes cost about $14,000 installed; add in a 30 percent federal credit, register for renewable energy credits and you pay for the system in less than 10 years. "Our home has 25 solar panels of various sizes. We went from $225 per month on the budget plan to $70 a month -- a savings of $155. In addition, we receive solar payments of $200 per megawatt generated. Last quarter, we received $400." For the Cukers, the savings and payback are just as great. "Dominion (Dominion Power Co. in Virginia) charges us about $8.25 a month for staying tied to the electrical grid, so we spend just under $100 per year on our electric bill," says Cuker, who shares the house with wife Dawn. "However, even though we use almost all the energy we make, we sell the credits for the renewable energy on the SREC (Solar Renewable Energy Credit) market. Since installing the first systems in 2009, we have made $1,940, which leaves us about $800 to the good each year, after subtracting what we pay Dominion." SRECs are a way for utilities to buy the clean energy produced by anybody who makes solar energy and is tied to the grid, according to Cuker. "Even though the homeowner uses most of the energy produced, the fact that it was done without burning dirty fuels is what is traded," he says. "Current rates for SRECs are about $200 per megawatt." Buzard's solar lifestyle includes a 33-foot-tall wind turbine that spins with the breezes at his waterfront home. But, he's not sold on wind turbines for individual homeowners. "The bang for the buck just isn't there," says Buzard, 54. "I only get wind from 180 degrees because homes in the neighborhood block it at this height. "For homeowners, solar panels are the way to go." Buzard's solar panels are small, attractive units he installed on short poles camouflaged by shrubbery. Some are located on the roof of his boathouse. Microinverters attached to the panels convert the solar energy to power the house can use. The number of solar panels a house needs is based on its energy use, so cost varies from house to house. Typically, a turnkey installation with ten 235-watt solar panels runs about $14,000; add in a 30 percent federal tax credit and your cost is about $10,500, said Buzard. Cuker, 57, wholeheartedly agrees about the solar panels, but he's taken it a step further, making some innovations on his own. Living in their 1936-built house since 1988, Cuker wanted to showcase how an old house, not just a new house, can become near energy neutral, meaning it generates at least as much energy as it uses. In 2009, he worked with Solar Services of Virginia Beach, Va., to install solar cells. Encountering a problem because the roof on the main structure has a roof line with east-west slopes, and not the desired southern slope, he designed and built a five-part solar awning on the south side to carry the solar panels. Each awning section supports two 215-watt panels, for a total of 10. "We adjust the slope of the awning with the changing seasons to get the best angle on the sun and maximize production of electricity," he says. The first year, the Cuker household made about 60 percent of their electricity needs. In 2010, Solar Services installed 10 additional panels on the east-facing roof of an addition on the house. Combined, the solar panels produce about 100 percent of the home's electricity needs now, including air conditioning for summer. In addition, the Cukers installed a solar hot water system. He also designed, built and installed a 20-foot-long "solar heat wall," using acrylic panels that heat a back room; it cost about $500 in materials. A fourth system is a solar-powered attic ventilator he created with two small solar panels and two engine cooling fans for less than $200. The Cukers' cost for all this solar is offset by a 30 percent federal tax credit for the $38,000 spent on the photovoltaic system, meaning it cost them about $26,600. The solar hot water system, which cost just less than $7,000, also got the 30 percent credit, as well as $4,000 from a special Virginia fund that encourages clean energy, helping the hot water system pay for itself within a year, according to Cuker. During winter, the Cukers heat the house with a ventless natural gas log fireplace for about $250 for the season; they save about $30 per month by having the gas service stopped in April and restarted in November. "The electrical system is tied to the grid," says Cuker. "So we don't store the energy we make, but share it with the Dominion system of distribution." Which means the house has a "net meter" installed on an exterior wall. "It's one that counts backward when we make more energy than we use," says Cuker.

Solar energy to cut bills

A LOCALLY-BASED Caribbean company is offering to feed electricity into the national grid, almost immediately lowering household electricity bills, and saving Barbados millions of dollars in the long term. Solaris Global Energy Ltd, which has been on the solar water heating market for the last three decades, yesterday offered its plan to Government at the Caribbean Renewable Energy Forum (CREF) at Hilton Barbados, with general manager David Rowe suggesting the installation of photovoltaic (PV) solar systems on 20 000 homes. “The plan is that over ten years, 20 000 house owners will provide PV solar electricity to the Barbados Light & Power grid through PV systems installed on their roofs [by Solaris],” said Rowe, adding that the project, dubbed Sun Stream, would have to be on roofs where the PV panels faced the south or west and were free of shade. According to Rowe, while all of the solar power feeds into each house, thereby satisfying the energy needs of each household, energy would be simultaneously feeding into the national grid. As a result, an average homeowner using 13 kilowatts per hour with an average BL&P bill of $280 per month would automatically get a new BL&P bill of $246.40 – about 12 per cent less. And, Rowe added, if a homeowner defaulted on payment, the energy supplied to the house could be suspended while, at the same time, that energy would still be feeding into the grid. “This is a win-win. If I can get the firms on board to help me with the funding for it, or if a bank – each system averages between $20 000 and $40 000 – is going to lend $30 000, they’re going to ask how can they be sure they will be repaid.

California has 1 in 4 U.S. solar energy jobs

Through the centuries, scientists have found innovative ways to harness the power of the sun — from magnifying glasses to steam engines. Converting more solar power into electricity is high on the political agenda in many countries, amid the push to find domestic energy sources that are less polluting than fossil fuels. Despite rapid growth in recent years, solar power accounts for less than 1 percent of electricity use in the United States. Solar power is more entrenched in European countries like Spain and Germany, which have promoted its development with strong incentives called feed-in tariffs that require electric utilities to buy solar power at a high, fixed price. The United States accounted for $1.6 billion of the world’s $29 billion market for solar panels; California is by far the leading solar state. In the last two years, China has emerged as the dominant player in green energy — especially in solar power. It accounted for at least half the world’s production in 2010, and its market share is rising rapidly. China’s Big Three solar power companies — Suntech Power, Yingli Green Energy and Trina Solar — all announced in August 2011 that their sales in the second quarter were up between 33 and 63 percent from a year earlier. But, analysts say, China has achieved this dominance through lavish government subsidies in its solar industry that are detrimental to American companies and other foreign competitors. While most U.S., Japanese and European companies still have a technological edge, China has a cost advantage, analysts say. Loans at very low rates from state-owned banks in Beijing, cheap or free land from local and provincial governments across China, huge economies of scale and other cost advantages have transformed China from a minor player in the solar power industry into the main producer of an increasingly competitive source of electricity.

Saturday, September 3, 2011

Which Renewable to Power Your House?

Prices have decreased by about a third over the last year because there are so many suppliers now. Chinese solar panel manufacturers have multiplied tenfold over the last year and many are already meeting European standards.Two years ago, potential buyers would have to ask suppliers if and how many solar panels they might be able to buy. The manufacturers could pretty much set the prices. Now we have a surplus of solar panels.t’s a good investment for pretty much everyone in Germany--apart from people living in the northwest--because people here produce electricity not for their own consumption needs but for the grid.The government guarantees a fixed price for solar power that is much higher than what you pay for electricity from non-regenerative sources. Home owners in Germany aren’t interested in energy independence, but selling at a good price.Many European countries now have similar feed-in tariffs. In southern Europe and northern Africa it also makes sense to use solar for home consumption. And the U.S. is now starting to deploy solar panels on a large scale. California is already a global leader.We think that on a global scale grid parity could be achieved by 2015, especially in regions with high electricity prices and lots of sun. Solar power should then be able to hold its own without subsidies, even against electricity from natural gas or nuclear power.In Germany, you should invest before the end of 2010. Electricity from solar panels built before 2011 can be sold at a guaranteed price that will remain stable for 20 years. After that, the guaranteed price will decrease every year.But there is an interesting paradox. Solar panels are usually more expensive in countries with a lot of sun, because profits would be much higher here otherwise. Even in Germany, solar panels are more expensive in the sunnier south than in the north.

Types of Solar Energy

Solar energy technologies use the sun's energy and light to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and even cooling, for homes, businesses, and industry. There are a variety of technologies that have been developed to take advantage of solar energy. These include: Photovoltaic Systems Producing electricity directly from sunlight. [learn more] Solar Hot Water Heating water with solar energy. [learn more] Solar Electricity Using the sun's heat to produce electricity. [learn more] Passive Solar Heating and Day lighting Using solar energy to heat and light buildings. [learn more] Solar Process Space Heating and Cooling Industrial and commercial uses of the sun's heat.

Increase in Green Energy Investment

Spending on green power soared by 60 per cent in 2007 as companies looked for alternative energy sources following huge cost rises in oil. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP), found that spending on green power hit $148 Billion in 2007. UNEP's Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2008 report, revealed that it expects spending on green energy to rise substantially by 2012. "Investment in the sustainable energy sectors must continue to grow strongly if targets for greenhouse gas reductions and renewable and efficiency increases are to be met," it said.

Advantages of Solar Power

Solar energy makes use of a renewable natural resource that is readily available in many parts of the world. -The process used to generate solar energy is emission free. -Technological advances have reduced costs to a point that it can compete with fossil fuel alternatives in specific circumstances. -The technology is scalable in that it can be used for domestic heating purposes or on a larger scale for commercial electricity generation, as solar water heaters are an established technology, widely available and simple to install and maintain. Disadvantages. The biggest barriers to increasing solar power generation are the cost, the amount of land required for large scale electricity production, and the intermittent nature of the energy source. Outlook Although wind power is more economical and has been more widely adopted than solar energy, solar power is the most flexible in scale and application. It also is widely available and an environmentally benign source of renewable energy. It is currently a $7 billion per year business that is growing at 40 percent per annul, but we believe it has even greater potential for growth in the future. Venture capital companies have increased funding in this area over the past few years, and there is a positive investment environment in both Europe and Japan for these types of companies. [Excerpts from Wells Fargo, Special Report Identifying the Opportunities in Alternative Energy.

Identifying the Opportunities in Alternative Energy

Solar energy is, perhaps, the first energy source that comes to mind when most people think of renewable sources of energy, but solar power is still a long way from being mainstream. It accounts for less than 1 percent of the world?s energy today. There are two main ways to harness the power of the sun to generateelectricity: photovoltaic (PV), where sunlight is directly converted into electricity via solar cells, and solar thermal power. PV is a proven technology that is most appropriate for small?scale applications to provide heat and power to individual houses and businesses. Sunlight falls on a layer of semiconductors, which jostles electrons. This, in turn, creates an electrical current that can be used as a source for heat. Solar PV cells are already cost effective for powering houses and businesses in some regions. Technological developments have reduced costs considerably over the last few years. However, largescale electricity production using solar energy costs about 22 cents per kilowatt?hour, significantly more expensive than its fossil fuel competitors and nuclear energy. This makes it more appropriate for specific applications rather than large scale power generation at this stage of development. Hopes to reduce these costs lie with newer technologies. As is the case with wind energy, solar power has most traction in countries such as Germany, Spain, Cyprus and Japan, all of which offer incentives to improve the uptake of renewable energy sources as part of their implementation of a diversified energy policy. In Cyprus, more than 50 percent of hotels and 90 percent of homes have solar water heating.
Pure Energy Production without affecting food chain Positioned to capitialise on newest technology Structured to deliver multi-faceted alternative energy solutions Steadily increasing revenues for our business Drastically decreased energy costs for our clients A unique target client experience in this market Steadily improving solar technology efficiency for our clients Steadily increasing market share for our business Strong client retention levels for our business

Investment in Solar Energy

Solar energy is emerging as an investment opportunity: As current technology improves, costs predicted to drop Solar power does not affect the food chain, like bio fuels Solar power is expected to play a larger role than wind in providing future electricity supply of the nation Solar power market is expected to grow 40% a year through 2011 ....

Nevada Solar One

Nevada Solar One has a 64-MW generating capacity and is located in Boulder City, Nevada. It was built by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Acciona Solar. Nevada Solar One uses parabolic troughs as thermal solar concentrators, heating tubes of liquid which act as solar receivers. These solar receivers are specially coated tubes made of glass and steel, and about 19,300 of these four meter long tubes are used in the newly built power plant. Nevada Solar One also uses a technology that collects extra heat by putting it into phase-changing molten salts. This energy can then be drawn at night. Solar thermal power plants designed for solar-only generation are well matched to summer noon peak loads in prosperous areas with significant cooling demands, such as the south-western United States. Using thermal energy storage systems, solar thermal operating periods can even be extended to meet baseload needs. The cost of Nevada Solar One is in the range of $220–250 million. The power produced is slightly more expensive than wind power, but less than photovoltaic (PV) power.

Mojave Desert's Solar Plant

There are several solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which supply power to the electricity grid. Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) is the name given to nine solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which were built in the 1980s. These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) making them the largest solar power installation in the world.Nevada Solar One is a solar thermal plant with a 64 MW generating capacity, located near Boulder City, Nevada.The Copper Mountain Solar Facility is a 48 MW photovoltaic power plant in Boulder City, Nevada. The Blythe Solar Power Project is a 968 MW solar thermal power station under construction in Riverside County, California. The Ivanpah Solar Power Facility is a 370 MW facility under construction which will consist of three separate solar thermal power plants. There are also plans to build other large solar plants in the Mojave Desert.[4] Insolation (solar radiation) in the Mojave Desert is among the best available in the United States, and some significant population centers are located in the area. These plants can generally be built in a few years because solar plants are built almost entirely with modular, readily available materials, although financing has been difficult and the projects typically receive government-backed financing.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

Make Solar Light For Your Bike

As everyone knows that solar lights have great use in the industry. People use them in a variety of applications to fulfill their needs in a cost effective way. Lets talk about bike lights. They are definitely used for the safety of riders and provide additional lights at night. As you know that some older bike lights use a small generator to power them. In this system, the intensity of light depends on the current speed of the bike which is a problem. Therefore, to resolve this problem, solar lights are used. Lets make solar bike light for your bike.

First of all, to the back side of the bike, safe the battery with the help of a bike cargo carrier. Then join these units to the back of the bike exact the place of bike light (normally over the back tire). Remember that the battery should be closed to the bike as much as possible. After that, take a 12 volt bike light and join it to the front of the bike according to the manufacturer's instructions. Perform the functions of bike light wires and tie wraps to hold the wires in accurate position. Then connect a 12 volt switch to the handle bars.

Attach the positive wire directly to the positive terminal of the battery. Same as join the negative wire of the bike light to first light switch. Then connect the second light switch terminal directly to the negative terminal of the battery with the help of black electrical wire. Fix the solar panel on the back of the battery, so that the main side of solar panel is towards the sun. The size of solar panel should be at most 12×12 inches. Broaden the red solar panel wire to the battery and join it to the positive terminal. Now expand the black negative solar panel wire over the negative terminal of the battery and secure it.

Recondition Your Solar Panels

If the solar panels get so old then people think about to buy and install new. But in today’s world, you can reconditioned your old panels because it has become more cheaper than installing a new one. But for this purpose, you have to be very careful while you are performing the recondition process. Because it is very subtile method and every small mistake can make your panel useless. So while refurbishing your solar pane, be very careful. Let’s start the reconditioning process.

First, try to find out that what type of system you are getting. If your system is new then you should use a polycarbonate or twin-wall carbonate for refurnishing it. But if you have older panels then consider to use a sheet of glass. After that, cut and remove the discolored covering on the transparent side of your panel. Use a pocket knife for that purpose. If the coverings are hard then remove it with the help of a flat-head screwdriver. Observe the surface of the cells. If it has obvious damage such as cuts, breaks or dents then replace these cells. Check and make sure that all the circuit connection are not loose or corroded. If so then repair it.

Start to spray insulation in the bottom as well as back of the panel’s casing. For this purpose, select such insulation which has high-density and at least R-7 grade/inch. Use a barbecue paint to paint it. For high temperature, a flat-black engine paint is the best option. After that, take a fresh glass sheet or a carbonate sheet and insert it in place of old transparent covering as a replacement. Then seal your panels with contractor-grade silicone. The purpose is to keep condensation out. Now, reconditioning of your solar panel panel is completed.

Top Reasons To Buy Solar Lights

As you know that solar lights have great use in the industry. The basic reason is that they are always cost effective as well as reliable for a long time. So progressive countries always rely on solar lights to fulfill their energy needs. Specially in generating electricity, they are great resource. Now, they are becoming the part of human’s life. From your home till large electricity projects, solar lights are everywhere now. Here are the given top reasons that why people prefer to buy solar lights for their different uses.

First of all, solar lights help to reduce carbon dioxide gas. Also, they are simple and easy to install almost anywhere like home, lawn, gardens, patio, gazebos, fences, walls, driveways, etc. They are charged from sun at the day time without any cost and spending electricity. If you full time charge them in the sunlight then they can last up to six hours which are enough for the needs of a single day. You can not only fix them but also change their positions anytime you want. From solar lights, you can charge your windows even their blinds too.

Solar lights designed for specific purposes such as runways and driveways, don’t need any wiring, cabling or placement issues. One more important benefit is that solar lights have very little or sometimes no need of repairing or maintenance. Minimum life of solar lights are till 1 year. They are used at any place where sunlight is available. Mostly, they are ideal for outdoor purpose such as occasions, festivals, camping, etc. Solar street lights are also made to keep the environment clean and free from any type of negative and harmful rays of electricity as well as sun.

Solar Security Lights – Best To Keep Your Place Safe

Do you have a plan to insert outdoor solar lights outside your home? Think that if they can safe your home then how will be it? Definitely you can use solar security lights for security purpose. People normally think that there is no difference between solar flood lights and solar security lights but they are different. So first we have to clear our concept about the difference between these two. The solar flood light remains work as long as it is turned on. While, a solar security light is a kind of flood light but it has a passive infrared sensor that detects movement. This light is turned on only when the sensor activates it. This activation is usually remains on for only one minute. But some other models of this light are also available in the market whose activation time is till upto 10 minutes.

So this is a very important feature for security purpose that light is turned on automatically when it is activated by the sensor. You can charge its battery at the day time. Although, it is turned on anytime when activated but in spite of this, it is not get dim. Normally, solar security lights are designed with a small solar panel which is connected by a wire to that light. Solar security lights are available in the market with different lengths of wire but the ideal length you have to choose is 15 feet (atleast). Due to this ideal length, you have a big flexibility of inserting your light where ever you want.

Not only for home, solar security lights can also be used to make any place secure which you want. But one thing you have to remember that insert them in such places where it can absorb proper sun light. Otherwise you will not avail benefit completely from that lights. Solar security lights are a viable option for the security purpose of different places. The major advantage of these lights is that they still works during a power interruption. Also, one more thing keep in your mind, the intensity of light. If you want these lights more brighter, try to buy halogen bulb models. But also try the LED models as well because they can also provide you a good brightness of light.

Centrosolar Launched S-Series Solar Panels

One of the most reputed organization in solar industry of the world Centrosolar introduced S-series solar panels. The Canadian subsidiary of Centrosolar launched this solar panel. It is basically a photovoltaic module which has come in the market to sell for everyone. It is designed in Germany and manufactured in Ontario. It is made for the use of both residential and commercial purposes. The CEO of Centrosolar Canad Mr. Deep Chakraborty said that we are very excited to introduce our first solar PV panel which is Canada based. This will allow us to meet the rapid and growing demand for solar energy in Ontario Feed-in-Tar.iff program.

The S-series solar module can frequently work in both sunny and cloudy weather. It is specially designed by analyzing the weather conditions of Canada that contains snow, hail, high level winds and extreme temperatures. It contain a chemical resistant as well as a flame retardant back sheet. This photovoltaic module has 60 polycrystalline silicon cells which have very high efficiency. Its standout feature has high load rating which is up to 5400 Pa. This rating is measured by the IEC 61215 advanced testing.

The S-Series solar panel is available in the market with MC-4 snap connectors standard. It gives a positive power tolerance rate of 0 – 4.99 W, which converts it into more power out of 235 W. The Centrosolar has the “all in one-box” solar system in the world. It provides Canadian installers all the components that are used in installing solar panels. Either they are used for domestic or commercial purpose, their results and feedback which is coming from the market is very positive and satisfactory. In the upcoming days, it will boost the solar energy industry.

Solar exterior wall lights

Solar exterior wall lights are manufactured in utility appearance as well as in a decorative style. Due to their unlimited benefits, home and business owners install them outside their properties. They are designed in a wide range of different creative shapes, materials and finishes. They are very easily to install by any person who is familiar with the use of a screwdriver. There is no need to call a professional electrician to install them. In conclusion, we can that the use of solar exterior wall lights is a great way to save money and electricity which will cause to save the planet.

Solar lights

Solar lights are widely used in different applications. They are very reliable due to their healthy effect, low consumption power and cheap cost. One of the most beneficial applications of solar lights is solar exterior wall lights. These lights are used on the outside walls of your home. They are fixed in the form of bulb at the outside corner of the walls. They provide a bright and beautiful view to the outer structure of your home at night. Basically solar exterior wall lights have many options in the bulb configuration which you can use. But your source of light is single then dual bulbs are required.

In solar exterior wall lights, the light source is LED bulbs because their brightness if so clear and same as any type of fluorescent bulbs. These lights have a long life and also they don’t create heat. That’s why you can easily them in different areas without any worry, damage and fear. Actually the majority of these lights have a range of sensors. It means that they can be fixed with onboard timers, different sensors as well as motion sensors too. These qualities become solar exterior wall lights the best solution for safety and security in the home as well as business environments.

Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

The efficiency of amorphous solar cells is typically between 6 and 8%. The Lifetime of amorphous cells is shorter than the lifetime of crystalline cells. Amorphous cells have current density of up to 15 mA/cm2, and the voltage of the cell without connected load of 0.8 V, which is more compared to crystalline cells. Their spectral response reaches maximum at the wavelengths of blue light therefore, the ideal light source for amorphous solar cells is fluorescent lamp.

Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Among all kinds of solar cells we describe silicon solar cells only, for they are the most widely used. Their efficiency is limited due to several factors. The energy of photons decreases at higher wavelengths. The highest wavelength when the energy of photon is still big enough to produce free electrons is 1.15 μm (valid for silicon only). Radiation with higher wavelength causes only heating up of solar cell and does not produce any electrical current. Each photon can cause only production of one electron-hole pair. So even at lower wavelengths many photons do not produce any electron-hole pairs, yet they effect on increasing solar cell temperature. The highest efficiency of silicon solar cell is around 23 %, by some other semi-conductor materials up to 30 %, which is dependent on wavelength and semiconductor material. Self loses are caused by metal contacts on the upper side of a solar cell, solar cell resistance and due to solar radiation reflectance on the upper side (glass) of a solar cell. Crystalline solar cells are usually wafers, about 0.3 mm thick, sawn from Si ingot with diameter of 10 to 15 cm. They generate approximately 35 mA of current per cm2 area (together up to 2 A/cell) at voltage of 550 mV at full illumination. Lab solar cells have the efficiency of up to 20 %, and classically produced solar cells up to 15 %.

Solar Cells

Solar cells are in fact large area semiconductor diodes. Due to photo voltaic effect energy of light (energy of photons) converts into electrical current. At p-n junction, an electric field is built up which leads to the separation of the charge carriers (electrons and holes). At incidence of photon stream onto semiconductor material the electrons are released, if the energy of photons is sufficient. Contact to a solar cell is realized due to metal contacts. If the circuit is closed, meaning an electrical load is connected, then direct current flows. The energy of photons comes in "packages" which are called quants. The energy of each quantum depends on the wavelength of the visible light or electromagnetic waves. The electrons are released, however, the electric current flows only if the energy of each quantum is greater than WL - WV (boundaries of valence and conductive bands).

Saturday, April 16, 2011

GreenPower options

Origin GreenPower is generated predominately from solar, wind and biomass sources. All of our GreenPower products meet the stringent accreditation rules of the Government's GreenPower program.
How does it work?

When you purchase one of our Government accredited GreenPower products, we'll have the chosen percentage of your electricity consumption matched into the electricity grid with electricity from GreenPower accredited renewable sources such as wind, solar, hydro and biomass.

Why solar electricity?

With an Origin solar electricity system, you'll:
Save money on your energy bills by generating your own clean electricity
Find it easy – your system comes fully installed and we'll organise everything from your paperwork to connection to the grid
Get a grid-connected solar energy system that best meets your needs
Enjoy competitive prices
Be helped by our team of dedicated solar energy specialists
Relax, knowing your solar panels come with a 25 year power output warranty
Enjoy peace of mind that your system will be installed by a BCSE grid-connect accredited installer, who will personally sign off on the installation report at the time of commissioning
Rest assured, knowing you're dealing with Australia's number one green energy provider.
Be rewarded with feed-in tariffs. If your solar system generates more power than you need, you have the potential to be reimbursed for any electricity your system feeds back into the grid, thanks to State Government feed-in tariffs (FITs). A feed-in tariff is a buy back rate paid on a net basis for any excess power your system produces that you don't first use in your home. Feed-in tariffs are designed to encourage more Australians to generate their own electricity and vary by state.

Solar energy for industry

INTRODUCTION
Sunlight is a clean, economical and safer alternate source to fossil fuel and batteries. It is a free and inexhaustible fuel source. It reduces electricity costs, as well as the number of batteries used into landfills. As it is environment friendly so many industries prefer solar energy as compared to fossil fuel.

Solar Power
Solar power has been used by industries for a long time but its demand increased in 1970 when the governments and industries were forced to use other sources of energy than oil. After research photovoltaic cells came into existed and solar energy took place of fossil fuel.

Solar energy platform in industries.
It is an open area of space with a large number of great big magnifying mirrors pointing towards the sun. These systems concentrate sun rays to a surface and heat the fluid that flows from one location to another through the common pipeline on which they are focused. This type of arrangement heats oil that is in the pipes which is then used to heat water to create steam. Oil is used because it can maintain heat and the steam obtained are used to drive the generators to get electricity.
Such an arrangement will be able to heat oil that is coming through pipes which will then be used to heat up water that will create steam. Oil is commonly employed as it can by character preserve the heat very well and at last the steam manufactured may be used to run generators to get electrical energy. Pressure which is involved in heating up the liquid can also be used to run many machines. The heat can increase the size of the fluid against the pistons of the motor which results in mechanical power. This power can be used to run generators which will then provide electricity.

Advantages of solar energy

• Reduced energy budget
As the energy is being used from a natural source it reduces the budget of a company.

• Reduced CO2 emissions
Solar source of energy is environment friendly there is no carbon emissions caused during the conversion of solar energy.

• Greater energy independence

• The solar energy is abundantly available on earth and it can be used for many years for the generation of energy.

• Solar power plants can be connected to the big existing present power sources to create a hybrid power system for energy formation in dry summer days.

• Solar power panels are long-lasting and do not need much repairs. Usually life time of solar power panels is up to 20 to 25 years, which give good reason for the initial cost of solar panel.

• Solar power supply systems are not at all noisy, they are soundless and efficient in their working hence protects pollution. ,.

• Solar panels are capable of linking with other type electric generators for e.g. gas turbines, wind, hydro etc. Batteries can also be charges for constant electricity supply.

• It will minimize amount of carbon-monoxide, greenhouse gasses and other pollution released into air. The more electricity from solar panels is used the more it is beneficial for environment to reduce pollution from our atmosphere.

Solar energy for industry

Industrial Solar Energy

Solar energy is the energy that comes from the sun. Every day the sun gives an enormous amount of energy to the earth. The sun emits amount of energy in one second more than ever used from the beginning of life on earth.

Applications and its work

Storing the energy generated from heat and light makes these PV cells work more reliable. They save the power and then reused when needed. These PV cells are used in switches, telephones, television and almost every electric equipment. A physical process called the photovoltaic effect is actually the change of the energy from sun-light into electrical potential energy by a photo voltaic cell(solar cell). Photovoltaic cells are used to in situations where they are more profitable than other power generation methods. Sometimes, they are used as photo detectors.

The photovoltaic cells store the heat and light which comes from the sun and make it useable in place of electricity. These PV cells can also be used in street light as they save all the energy in day light and then make it workable in night for longer period and the major character tics of this PV cells is that it stores the energy and then make it reuse as an alternative of electricity. Another method is used to increase the amount of electricity which is being generated by PV cells is that the huge amount of silicon layers are combined together from what the are called PV arrays. These PV arrays are mostly used to power the electric equipment in homes and offices. They are very much useful in supplying power or electricity to the remote places where there is no source of generating electric powers. The PV cells are useful because it stores all the power which comes from sun in form of heat and light and then this power is saves in these cells and then it used in night and cloudy whether because at night there is no sun light and in cloudy whether the sun light is dim, but these PV cells have the quality to save that power so that it can used be used in contingency. The PV cells are different from these cells because the PV cells have more storing and long live capacity on the other hand the disposable cells have shorter life and they don’t have long storage capacity.

Solar photovoltaic’s global market trend

As we know that the world have recognized that the best alternative of fossil fuel is solar energy because it have many advantages and less side effects because of which the trend of PV has came in global market. The manufacturing of PV is increasing as according to latest report that its manufacturing is almost reaching 48 percent average per year since 2002 and it has turn out to be the world fastest growing energy technology. Rough approximation says that almost 90 percent of generating capacity is consisting of grid-tied electrical system. This type of installation can be ground mounted or it can be on roof tops or walls and it have a particular name called building integrated photovoltaic or for in short terms BIPV.

Photovoltaic is the field of technology which tells that how the application of solar cell is utilizing light and heat from the sun in the electricity form so that it can be used as an alternative to the electricity which is being formed from fossil fuel.

Photovoltaic trends 2010 - 11

Photovoltaic trends 2010 – 11

Photo-voltaic’s or simply PV is the procedure of constructing electrical power by changing solar radiation into direct electricity utilizing semiconductors that show the photovoltaic’s effect. This power generation is prepared from solar panels which are consisting of number of cells which are prepared from photovoltaic things. The thing which is utilized in photovoltaic is monocrystaline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and cadmium telluride and copper indium selenide.

SOLAR ENERGY JOBS

Solar energy is the energy that comes from the sun. Every day the sun gives an enormous amount of energy to the earth. The sun emits amount of energy in one second more than people have used from the
beginning of life on earth.

The solar energy use has been increasing day by day automatically it is causing an increase in the jobs related to solar energy and a large number of labors source is needed in this newly born field. By using fossil fuel as an energy source a lot of air and water pollution is caused. So in order to avoid air and water pollution the companies as well as home investors prefer solar energy.

Solar energy is converted either into thermal energy or electricity.

• Solar thermal energy
It is used to heat different structures such as homes, buildings, greenhouses and pools.

• Electricity
Solar energy can be changed into electricity by of two methods
• By using solar cells to change sunlight into electricity
• By a solar power plant that uses solar thermal collectors to create steam that is further used to run generators.

Solar Energy Education

Most of the professionals who work in solar energy industries obtain qualifications in the related fields (sciences, engineering or business disciplines. No specific qualifications are needed for getting a job in solar energy industry. That is why training is provided by the employer. But the qualifications are preferred comparatively between the employees. The previous experience jobs are also considered.
For entering into a solar power industry a student can have an educational background from engineering, branch of earth science or a technical field. Many universities are now developing solar power programs in their respective renewable energy departments. As the solar power industry is flourishing its causing an increase in number of students opting solar power studies.

Solar power careers
It is a type of industry in which an individual can enter only if he has high school education as an installer and can work hard to reach unto the level of a technician. So the higher level positions (engineers, managers) require educational backgrounds in the subjects of engineering, physics, the earth sciences or management.

Solar Power Project Manager
The job of a project manager is to act as the overseer of the solar power site. Experience in all aspects of solar power operations is required for this job. This post requires advanced degree but bachelor’s degree in physics, engineering, field of earth science, and experience in industry is also accepted.

Solar Power Engineers
A solar power engineer has to design and develop solar energy systems on a solar power farm. Solar engineers play an important role in solar power operations, system development, troubleshooting, and research and management duties. Engineers must be certified and licensed.The solar engineers should have engineering degree or an educational background in physics. Preferrence is given to employers on the basis of previous job experience

Solar Technicians
The work of solar technicians is to examine and inspect solar systems. Technicians have to install solar systems, do service and repair duties. In this category experience is preferred as compared to education. The technicians have to spend 2 or 3 years as installers to gain experience after that they are being promoted.

Solar Installers
The job of a solar installer is to do the electrical wiring and mounting of the system. Here also experience in wiring, residential electrical installation, construction is more important than education. Solar installers are usually paid on the hourly basis ranging from 14-20 hours a day which depends on experience and location.

Solar panel mounting

Solar Panel Mounting Fossil fuel is the biggest source of energy being used from many decades that is the reason it has become short many people are beginning to look for alternative sources for energy. At first they have looked on coal because our earth is full of coal reserves and they are not used that much but at last after research they have find out although coal can be main source of energy but it have many side effects in which the main one is pollution and it can cause damage to ozone layer. Then on second option they have found out that’ solar energy means sun light can be utilized in alternate to fuel based energy production. Sun is the greatest source of fuel for mankind .Solar energy is the best way for solving the planet’s energy crises. A person can make its own photo voltaic cells called solar panels. The ones which a person can make in home cannot be as powerful as those which are made from silicon. But they work on the same principals.

1st Asia Solar Energy Forum held in Manila

High costs of investing and high risks are the main obstacles to fulfil the demand of solar energy. However, the current situation of power energy particularly in Asian region needs alternative sources, said president Asian Development Bank (ADB) Haruhiko Kuroda while speaking at First Asia Solar Energy Forum held in Manila.

President ADB said that Asia and Pacific region has the right combination of elements i.e. demand for energy, access to sunlight and arid land, technological maturity, and a sound investment climate.

“As a result, there is a risk of ‘Solar Divide’ where developing countries cannot receive the benefit of environmental technology despite its large potential,” Kuroda said. “The role of multilateral development institutions, such as ADB and its partners, should be to play a catalytic role to overcome these institutional capacity, policy, technology, and financing barriers.”

However, Kuroda said that obstacles such as high up-front capital costs of investing in solar energy and a high-risk perception have to date been keeping many solar energy investors on the sidelines. Many countries in Asia and the Pacific are well suited to solar power initiatives, and incentives and low-cost financing mechanisms should be made available to help the region make the transition possible, Haruhiko Kuroda said. The two-day forum, a part of the Asian Solar Energy Initiative (ASEI) announced by ADB earlier this year, brought together some 200 policy makers and solar energy-related professionals from 34 ADB member countries. The event was hosted by ADB in partnership with the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), and the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP).

Under ASEI, ADB targets to catalyse projects for about 3,000 megawatts in solar power by 2013. The ASEI also includes the establishment of a knowledge platform named the Asia Solar Energy Forum, support for project preparation, and direct financing of solar energy projects. It will also help raise concessional funds from donor countries to partly mitigate risks of the high up-front capital costs of investing in solar energy, and design other innovative ways to attract private-sector investment.

In her closing remarks at the Manila event on Tuesday, Vice-President for Knowledge Management and Sustainable Development Ursula Schaefer Preuss said the forum represented a step towards a solar energy revolution in the Asia and Pacific region. “Solar power has the potential to promote low-carbon growth, ensure energy security, increase access to energy for all and achieve ADB’s overall objective of poverty reduction,” she said. Schaefer-Preuss also announced that the second meeting of the forum would take place in Tokyo in December.

Solar Energy, Power, Electricity


Basic about Solar Energy, Solar Power and Solar Electricity.
In basic about solar energy, solar power and solar eletricity we will talk about the basic things behind this power. Formulas that will be used to find out which Solar Panel you should use and which battery you should select. And how much Solar Panels do you need to power up lights and other applications. Here are the main things you need to know and that will be used to calculate your needs. AC-DC system, Volt, Current(Ampere), Power(Watt), Resistance, Series and Parallel connecting.

AC-DC system
Ac stands for Alternative Current. Alternative current is almost that we found in wall outlet or electric outlet. Clever say'd that we found in wall. It is 230 Volt. DC stands for Direct Current. In solar panels it is used 12 volt dc system. DC is that current we can found in cells, batteries, and using adapters or regulators. See the picture of a dell charger. Dell charger also converts AC Current to DC 5.4 Volt and 2410mA. Solar Panels also uses DC voltage and Current.

Monday, March 28, 2011

Remote Applications

Remote buildings, such as schools, community halls, and clinics, can benefit from solar energy. In developing regions, central power plants can provide electricity to homes via a local wired network, or act as a battery charging station where members of the community can bring batteries to be recharged.

PV systems can be used to pump water in remote areas as part of a portable water supply system. Specialized solar water pumps are designed for submersible use or to float on open water. Large-scale desalination plants can also be PV powered using an array of PV modules with battery storage.

PV systems are sometimes best configured with a small diesel generator in order to meet heavy power requirements in off-grid locations. With a small diesel generator, the PV system does not have to be sized to cope with the worst sunlight conditions during the year. The diesel generator can provide back-up power that is minimized during the sunniest part of the year by the PV system. This keeps fuel and maintenance costs low.

Industrial uses of Solar Energy

For many years, solar energy has been the power supply choice for industrial applications, especially where power is required at remote locations. Because solar systems are highly reliable and require little maintenance, they are ideal in distant or isolated places.

Solar energy is also frequently used for transportation signaling, such as offshore navigation buoys, lighthouses, aircraft warning light structures, and increasingly in road traffic warning signals. Solar is used to power environmental monitoring equipment and corrosion protection systems for pipelines, well-heads, bridges, and other structures. For larger electrical loads, it can be cost-effective to configure a hybrid power system that links the PV with a small diesel generator.

Commercial uses of Solar Energy

On an office building, roof areas can be covered with glass PV modules, which can be semi-transparent to provide shaded light. On a factory or warehouse, large roof areas are the best location for solar modules. If the roof is flat, then arrays can be mounted using techniques that do not breach the weatherproofed roof membrane. Also, skylights can be partially covered with PV.

The vertical walls of office buildings provide several opportunities for PV incorporation, as well as sunshades or balconies incorporating a PV system. Sunshades may have the PV system mounted externally to the building, or have PV cells specially mounted between glass sheets comprising the window.

Residential uses of Solar Energy

The number of PV installations on buildings connected to the electricity grid has grown in recent years. Government subsidy programs (particularly in Germany and Japan) and green pricing policies of utilities or electricity service providers have stimulated demand. Demand is also driven by the desire of individuals or companies to obtain their electricity from a clean, non-polluting, renewable source. These consumers are usually willing to pay only a small premium for renewable energy. Increasingly, the incentive is an attractive financial return on the investment through the sale of solar electricity at premium feed-in tariff rates.

In solar systems connected to the electricity grid, the PV system supplies electricity to the building, and any daytime excess may be exported to the grid. Batteries are not required because the grid supplies any extra demand. However, to be independent of the grid supply, battery storage is needed to provide power at night.

Holiday or vacation homes without access to the electricity grid can use solar systems more cost-effectively than if the grid was extended to reach the location. Remote homes in sunny locations can obtain reliable electricity to meet basic needs with a simple system comprising of a PV panel, a rechargeable battery to store the energy captured during daylight hours, a regulator (or charge controller), and the necessary wiring and switches. Such systems are often called solar home systems (SHS).

History of Solar Energy

Very often there is confusion about the various methods used to harness solar energy.Energy from the sun can be categorized in two ways: (1) in the form of heat (or thermal energy), and (2) in the form of light energy. Solar thermal technologies uses the solar heat energy to heat substances (such as water or air) for applications such as space heating, pool heating and water heating for homes and businesses. There are a variety of products on the market that uses solar thermal energy. Often the products used for this application are called solar thermal collectors and can be mounted on the roof of a building or in some other sunny location. The solar heat can also be used to produce electricity on a large utility-scale by converting the solar energy into mechanical energy.

So, fossil fuels is actually solar energy stored millions and millions of years ago. Indirectly, the sun or other are responsible for all our energy. Even nuclear energy comes from a star because the uranium atomsused in nuclear energy were created in the fury of a nova - a star exploding. Let's look at ways in which we can use the solar energy.

Saturday, February 26, 2011

Our Sun - A Closer Look

In this section, we will discuss some of the more prominent features of the Sun. And we will also discuss the Solar Eclipse (found on its own page).

Here is a nice summary of some of the important features. Just click on the image to see a large version. The layers in this image is not to scale.

Corona This outer layer is very dim - a million times dimmer than the photosphere and oddly enough, it is the hottest. At 106 K it would seem the heat would be unbearable for us, but remember in Physics heat is a measure of molecular energy - the movement of molecules within a space. Because the Corona extends several million kilometers into space, there is a lot of room for molecules to move. It is this movement that is the source of the solar winds. The high temperature of the Corona can force ions to move as fast as a million kilometers per hour.
Chromosphere Chromosphere means "sphere of color," but this layer is 10-4 as dense as the photosphere so it is not that bright. In fact, the best way to view the chromosphere it to use a special narrow band filter called a Hydrogen-Alpha (Hα) filter. The wavelength is 656.3 nm which is in the red (lower energy) part of the spectrum. This wavelength is given by the single electron in the Hydrogen atom dropping to the second orbit (more in the physics section). The temperature of the inner portion of this layer is lower (at 4400 K) than the photosphere, but jumps suddenly to 25,000 K. From this point to the transition into the Corona, the temperature jumps sharply to 400,000 degrees. The reason for this is not clearly understood and remains an active subject to Astronomers studying the Sun, but suspect the magnetic flux as a result of (as well as resulting in) sunspot formation might provide some clues.
Photosphere The Photosphere, Chromosphere and Corona are the three layers that make up the "atmosphere" of the Sun. The Photosphere is the inner-most layer and is the layer we easily see every day. It burns at 5800 K. Oddly enough, the photosphere is opaque to light, only allowing transferred energy from the convection layer below. It is the opaque feature of the photosphere that shields us from directly viewing the thermonuclear core and provide the shape of the Sun. The transferred energy from the convection zone below occurs in the form of granules (see the photo above). As the hotter gas rises up, the cooler gas descends only to be re-heated by the convection layer and the process repeats itself. Sometimes disturbances in the magnetic field will produce sunspots, which occur within this layer, but more on that later.
Convective Zone We cannot visualize past the photosphere, but we can create models and examine particles emanating from the Sun to get an idea to the Sun's interior structure. Three internal layers dominate the anatomy with the outer layer (just under the photosphere) called the convective zone. Radiation is not an effective mean of generating the heat energy produced by the core, so the convective layer acts as the buffer to stabilize this energy. Once a photon enters the convective zone, it can take 170,000 years for it to reach the photosphere. The action of the photon is something called the "random walk" where the photon collides with other photons mainly because the opacity of this zone it a bit high. While there is some pretty unforgiving mathematics involved in determining exactly how much opacity there it, it is important to know the convective zone helps maintain the hydrostatic equilibrium within the Sun by acting as a buffer.
Radiative Zone This layer of the Sun is responsible for delivering the photons from the Core to the Convective layer. The radiative layer "radiates" the energy by the emission and reabsorbtion of photons.
Core The heart of the Sun is the core. Not much to say here accept the gravity was strong enough to bring Hydrogen together to initiate fusion. The magic temperature for fusion is 10,000,000 K. The energy released is balanced by the radiative and convective layers of the Sun to create the hydrostatic equilibrium necessary to prevent the Sun from flying apart or to burn its fuel to fast.

Our Sun - A Closer Look

In this section, we will discuss some of the more prominent features of the Sun. And we will also discuss the Solar Eclipse (found on its own page).

Here is a nice summary of some of the important features. Just click on the image to see a large version. The layers in this image is not to scale.

Corona This outer layer is very dim - a million times dimmer than the photosphere and oddly enough, it is the hottest. At 106 K it would seem the heat would be unbearable for us, but remember in Physics heat is a measure of molecular energy - the movement of molecules within a space. Because the Corona extends several million kilometers into space, there is a lot of room for molecules to move. It is this movement that is the source of the solar winds. The high temperature of the Corona can force ions to move as fast as a million kilometers per hour.
Chromosphere Chromosphere means "sphere of color," but this layer is 10-4 as dense as the photosphere so it is not that bright. In fact, the best way to view the chromosphere it to use a special narrow band filter called a Hydrogen-Alpha (Hα) filter. The wavelength is 656.3 nm which is in the red (lower energy) part of the spectrum. This wavelength is given by the single electron in the Hydrogen atom dropping to the second orbit (more in the physics section). The temperature of the inner portion of this layer is lower (at 4400 K) than the photosphere, but jumps suddenly to 25,000 K. From this point to the transition into the Corona, the temperature jumps sharply to 400,000 degrees. The reason for this is not clearly understood and remains an active subject to Astronomers studying the Sun, but suspect the magnetic flux as a result of (as well as resulting in) sunspot formation might provide some clues.
Photosphere The Photosphere, Chromosphere and Corona are the three layers that make up the "atmosphere" of the Sun. The Photosphere is the inner-most layer and is the layer we easily see every day. It burns at 5800 K. Oddly enough, the photosphere is opaque to light, only allowing transferred energy from the convection layer below. It is the opaque feature of the photosphere that shields us from directly viewing the thermonuclear core and provide the shape of the Sun. The transferred energy from the convection zone below occurs in the form of granules (see the photo above). As the hotter gas rises up, the cooler gas descends only to be re-heated by the convection layer and the process repeats itself. Sometimes disturbances in the magnetic field will produce sunspots, which occur within this layer, but more on that later.
Convective Zone We cannot visualize past the photosphere, but we can create models and examine particles emanating from the Sun to get an idea to the Sun's interior structure. Three internal layers dominate the anatomy with the outer layer (just under the photosphere) called the convective zone. Radiation is not an effective mean of generating the heat energy produced by the core, so the convective layer acts as the buffer to stabilize this energy. Once a photon enters the convective zone, it can take 170,000 years for it to reach the photosphere. The action of the photon is something called the "random walk" where the photon collides with other photons mainly because the opacity of this zone it a bit high. While there is some pretty unforgiving mathematics involved in determining exactly how much opacity there it, it is important to know the convective zone helps maintain the hydrostatic equilibrium within the Sun by acting as a buffer.
Radiative Zone This layer of the Sun is responsible for delivering the photons from the Core to the Convective layer. The radiative layer "radiates" the energy by the emission and reabsorbtion of photons.
Core The heart of the Sun is the core. Not much to say here accept the gravity was strong enough to bring Hydrogen together to initiate fusion. The magic temperature for fusion is 10,000,000 K. The energy released is balanced by the radiative and convective layers of the Sun to create the hydrostatic equilibrium necessary to prevent the Sun from flying apart or to burn its fuel to fast.

Our Sun

At the heart of our Solar System is the Sun. Every day, the Sun rises and sets and ancient astronomers used this consistency to erect temples to predict seasonal changes for the harvest. The warmth of the Sun is vital to life on Earth because of photosynthesis and its warmth heats the surface to help with weather changes. But what is the Sun made of? How does the Sun generate its energy? Will the Sun shine forever? The answers are within....

Image of Sun in white light Mean Distance from Earth: 149,598,000 km
Mean angular diameter: 32 arcmin
Radius: 696,109 km
Mass: 1.9891 x 1030 kg
Composition: 74% Hydrogen
25% Helium
1% Other
Mean Density: 1410 kg/m3
Mean Temperature: 5800K
Luminosity: 3.86 x 1026 Watts
Orbit about Galaxy: 220 million years
Orbital Speed: 220 km/s

Solar System Formation

Everything has a beginning, and our story begins when the cloud that was the Solar Nebula began to contract. All stars exist in islands called galaxies, and galaxies contain old and new stars as well as clumps of dust clouds. These clouds contain mostly hydrogen and some heavier metals (any elements that are heavier than helium is considered a metal by Astronomers). As we will learn the the Sun section, stars create their energy by a process called fusion. When a star ends its life, it explodes in a tremendous phenomenon called a supernova. A supernova has so much energy that heavy metals are formed - metals like iron and gold. These elements "seed" surrounding hydrogen clouds so that newer stars will contain more heavy elements in their atmospheres.

It is believed that for a system of planets to form around a star during cloud contraction the cloud must contain heavy elements.

The Exploded Planet Hypothesis

he Exploded Planet Hypothesis (EPH) offers an alternative explanation for the origin of the asteroid belts and comets. For an overview, see Tom Van Flanders's book Dark Matter, Missing Planets & New Comets or read the updated summary posted here, "The Exploded Planet Hypothesis -- 2000". There are presently three known explosion mechanisms.

Far from being a new idea, the EPH fell out of favor with mainstream scientists, primarily for lack of a viable causal theory. However there is a growing body of evidence that suggests planetary explosions may not even be uncommon (see "A Revision of the Exploded Planet Hypothesis"). While most astronomers believe the solar system has remained essentially unchanged since its formation, "The Original Solar System" and "Origin of Trans-Neptunium Asteroids" offer a very different perspective.

Consistent with our mission statement, the EPH makes falsifiable predictions. One way the EPH has distinguished itself from competitive theories is in predicting that many comets and asteroids will have satellites. The satellites of comet Hale-Opp, discovery of the asteroid Ida's moon Dactyl, and the "Near Challenge Results" are all examples of the success of this genuine prediction.

The EPH was recently used to make exceptionally accurate predictions of the November 1999 Leonid meteor storm, as well as for the two subsequent years. See the complete 2000 and 2001 predictions. This same methodology also predicted another Leonids storm in 2002 as well as a Perseid storm in 2004.

Finally, because the EPH offers a simple explanation for the sudden and dramatic pole shifts on Mars and the crustal dichotomy of the planet, the EPH has been connected with the Caledonia story.

Solar Eclipse

There are four types of solar eclipses: total, annular, hybrid, and partial. The occurrence of each solar eclipse as per observer will depend on three main factors: the position of the Earth and Moon along their orbital paths (i.e., whether near its apogee, near its perigee, or somewhere in between), the location of the observer on Earth, and the alignment between the Earth, Sun, and Moon.

In this article, we'll focus on the effect of the positions of the Earth and Moon along their orbital paths. Their positions will determine whether the eclipse witnessed by an observer on Earth will be total, annular, or hybrid.

Recall that the Earth's and Moon's orbits are elliptical in shape. That means, in some instances, the Earth can be at its farthest position from the Sun (known as its apogee), while in others, it can be at its nearest (perigee). In still other instances (in fact, more frequent than the other two), the Earth can be located somewhere in between the two extremes.

When the Earth is at its farthest, the Sun will naturally appear smallest to an observer than if the Earth were at its nearest. Hence, all things considered equal, the Moon will be able to cover a greater part of the Sun when the Earth is at this position.

Now, since the Moon's orbital path about the Earth is also elliptical, there should be a position wherein the Moon will appear largest – its perigee. The nearer the Moon, the bigger it will appear from an observer on Earth, and the bigger its obstruction (if ever) of the Sun. As we can see, the positions of the Earth and Moon along their orbital paths are crucial in producing the type of solar eclipse.

So, at which extreme positions of the Earth and Moon can we have the smallest Sun and largest Moon?

The Sun is smallest when the Earth is at its apogee while the Moon is largest when the Moon is at its perigee. Thus, if these two scenarios happen at the same time while the Earth, Sun, and Moon are fully aligned, many of us will experience the most total solar eclipse there can ever be.

Sunday, January 30, 2011

Bringing affordable, high-quality solar lighting to rural China


The Rural Energy Development Project has boosted the use of photovoltaic (PV) solar-home systems in off-grid areas in western China. This has been achieved through support to the industry to improve the quality of PV modules and other components; technical and management assistance to local installation companies; and subsidies to sales. Since 2001 the REDP has enabled sales of over 402,000 systems, which improve quality of life through better light, communications and entertainment. Sales now continue without subsidies, because the benefits of PV are widely known, and the systems are reliable and accessible.

Rural Energy Foundation (REF), Sub-Saharan Africa


More than 70% of sub-Saharan Africa has no access to electricity. In rural areas this often exceeds 95%. REF has met this need by turning local communities on to solar. Recognising that the products are nothing without the local entrepreneurs to promote and install them, REF has trained local networks of budding entrepreneurs. As a result, in only three years 300,000 people in nine countries have gained access to solar energy. And better quality light gives opportunities for study, income-generation and leisure activities as well as vital access to radio and mobile phones.

Energy crises badly affecting social, economic sectors

Punjab Chief Minister Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif said energy crisis was adversely affecting social and economic sectors. He said thr government is working on various projects of power generation through alternative sources for overcoming thecrisis. He said investment by Omani entrepreneurs in Punjab will be welcomed and all out facilities will be provided.This was stated by him during a meeting with Ambassadorof Oman Mohamed Said Al-Lawati at Chief Minister’s Secretariat here Thursday.
Cooperation in various sectors and matters of mutual interest were discussed in the meeting. The Chief Minister said process of development is beingbadly affected by power shortage and measures are being taken by the government for overcoming the crisis. He said that energy conservation conferences were organized in Islamabad and Lahore and invaluable proposals were given by the experts for power generation. He said Pakistan has vast coal reserves and energy could be generated through windmills. He said electricity could also be produced through sugarcane waste and government is working on these lines as well.
The Chief Minister said exchange of delegations between Punjab province and Oman has vital importance for the promotion of investment and cooperation in various sectors. The Chief Minister said he will send a delegation from Punjab to Oman to negotiate with various companies and investors for investment in the province.Ambassador of Oman Mohamed Said Al-Lawati said thereare historic relations between Pakistan and Oman. He said that Pakistan was a peaceful country having vast opportunities of investment. He said that there was a need to dispel the negative image of Pakistan as it is contrary to the facts. He said that law and order situation was improving in Pakistan while a conducive atmosphere for investment exists in the country. He said Oman will cooperate with Punjab for the development of various sectors. He invited the Chief Minister Punjab to visit Oman.

Solar energy can help in easing energy crisis

Solar energy can help Pakistan in easing its energy crisis and also curb prolonged power outages. This was stated by the President Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce . He demanded of the government that solar energy is the need of hour and can help overcome energy crisis.
He said Pakistan is one of the lucky countries in the world where the sun shines 17 to 18 hours. He said that this is blessing, We should use all available resources to exploit solar energy.” Expressing keen interest in alternative energy solutions as a remedy to prolonged power failures, which are adversely affecting life of the common people, he added. “For the progress of country, we need to focus on solar energy which will also help in trade sector,” he said.

Converting BTS (Base transceiver station) to Solar Energy, Solar Powered BTS

The row between Punjab government & Telecoms operators for shifting of cellular cell-phone towers to solar energy has taken a new turn as the high ups of the Ministry of info tech (MoIT) are on a visit abroad.
After being asked by the Punjab government to shift a11 the transmission towers of cellular cell-phone companies from electricity to solar energy, the telecoms industry has filed a joint respond to the MoIT, seeking its intervention ovr the issue.

However, things are getting jittery, as number high-ranked official is their to negotiate between telecoms industry & Punjab Government.
An official of IT ministry informed dis agency dat Secretary of info tech Naghibullah Malik waz on a visit to USA along with Joint Secretary of the ministry. He a1so stated the secretary cabinet waz looking aftr the affairs of the ministry while secretary IT wou1d return home on June 29.

China takes lead in clean-power investment

Reporting from Washington — China overtook the United States for the first time last year in the race to invest in wind, solar and other sources of clean energy, according to a comprehensive new report that raises questions about American competitiveness in a booming global market.

U.S. clean energy investments hit $18.6 billion last year, a report from the Pew Charitable Trusts said, a little more than half the Chinese total of $34.6 billion. Five years ago, China's investments in clean energy totaled just $2.5 billion.

China to step up solar energy research, development

The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has launched an initiative to boost the development of solar energy technology, in a bid to turn it into a major energy source in China by 2050.

A CAS official said that the academy had organized academicians and experts to make an action plan and will set up a platform to support scientific innovations involving solar energy.

The plan will be carried out in three phases, including "distributed utilization" by 2015, "alternative utilization" by 2025 and "large-scale utilization" by 2035, respectively.

This action plan aims to form value chain on technological innovation including basic studies, application studies and market research.

CAS experts said that China has a big potential for solar energy development. The duration of sunshine for two-thirds of its territory is more than 2,200 hours a year. It also has vast desertareas, where solar energy could be "harvested".

They said that the use of solar energy could effectively reduce the discharge of green-house gases.

The United States, Japan and European countries began to develop solar energy in the 1970s. Government investment has greatly promoted solar energy research and development, especially in Japan, Germany and Australia.

Germany had promoted the solar energy "family program", and fixed solar energy facilities on the roofs of a large number of homes. Japan launched a program to polarize the use of solar energy, and to cut the price of solar energy by half within three to five years.

CAS's advanced energy scientific and technological innovation center invited experts and scholars to carry out investigation and research on China's energy industry.

Experts said that lowering the costs for using solar energy would be the key for stepping up the use of this renewable energy in China.